Heart failure

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Definition N Engl J Med. 2010 Jan 21;362(3):228-38 N Engl J Med. 2003 May 15;348(20):2007-18. It is important to note that heart failure is not a diagnosis. Rather, it represents a constellation of signs and symptoms resulting from the inability of the heart to pump blood forward at a sufficient rate to meet the metabolic demands of… Read more »

Physiology of cardiac conduction and contractility

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Cardiac conducting system  Clin Anat. 2009 Jan;22(1):99-113. Can J Anaesth. 1993 Nov;40(11):1053-64. Sinoatrial (SA) node normally generates the action potential, i.e. the electrical impulse that initiates contraction. The SA node excites the right atrium (RA), travels through Bachmann’s bundle to excite left atrium (LA). The impulse travels through internodal pathways in RA to the atrioventricular (AV) node…. Read more »

Atherosclerosis

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Atherosclerosis: disease of large and medium-sized arteries characterized by endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation and accumulation of lipids, cholesterol, calcium and cellular debris within the intima of the vessel wall.