Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

Posted by & filed under Pediatrics.

Definition Am Fam Physician. 2002 Feb 15;65(4):599-606. CMAJ. 2015 Mar 17;187(5):335-43. Pediatr Rev. 2012 Jul;33(7):291-302. More than 80% of newborns will exhibit jaundice, the clinical sign of hyperbilirubinemia, in the first few days of life. Hyperbilirubinemia can be benign at low levels but is harmful to the brain at higher levels.  All newborns will have… Read more »

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

Posted by & filed under Hematology.

Overview/definition Lancet. 2008 Jan 5;371(9606):64-74. Diseases of erythrocytes can be divided into the affected component of the cell as follows: Hemoglobin (e.g. sickle cell anemia, thalassemia) Membrane-cytoskeleton (e.g. hereditary spherocytosis); and Metabolism (e.g. G6PD deficiency) G6PD deficiency is a common, X-linked reduction in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which makes erythrocytes susceptible to oxidative stress… Read more »

Melanoma

Posted by & filed under Oncology.

Definition N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 6;355(1):51-65. Malignant skin neoplasm resulting from the transformation and uncontrolled proliferation of melanocytes. Etiology N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 6;355(1):51-65. Histology Melanocytes: specialized pigment cells found in the basal layer of the epidermis that produce and transfer melanin to mitotically active keratinocytes. Melanin: a dark pigment produced by epidermal… Read more »

Breast cancer

Posted by & filed under Oncology.

Overview Definition: breast cancer refers to several types of neoplasm arising from breast tissue, the most common being adenocarcinoma of the cells lining the terminal duct lobular unit. This chapter only discusses this adenocarcinoma type. Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Canadian women, and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in… Read more »

Lung cancer

Posted by & filed under Oncology, Respirology.

Overview Clin Chest Med. 2011 Dec;32(4):605-44. Canadian Cancer Society: Canadian Cancer Statistics 2012 Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in Canada and worldwide (about 27% of cancer deaths in Canada). Overall incidence of lung cancer is: Higher in men than women Declining for men since 1980s Declining for women since mid-2000s (reversal of… Read more »

Cerebral palsy

Posted by & filed under Neurology, Pediatrics.

An overview of the definition, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of cerebral palsy. Important concepts include (i) recognizing the risk factors for CP, (ii) understanding the difference between UMN and LMN lesions, and (iii) appreciating a multidisciplinary approach to caring for this special population.